Both realists and anti-realists involved in the current debates can learn something from it. I am not sure, however, to what extent Putnam would be willing to accept my reading of Kant as an account of what Kant actually held as opposed to what he should have held. Debates about scientific realism are closely connected to almost everything else in the philosophy of science, for they concern the very nature of scientific knowledge. Sensen, finally, explains Kant's claim that autonomy is the supreme principle of morality and shows why Kantian ethics maintains that desire-based theories, divine command theories, and moral realism offer mistaken views of the nature of morality and the sources of moral obligation. completed by our partner www.ebooks.com. Realism is committed to the existence of moral. Kant presents himself t o readers as a defender of Material Realism, that is, the philosophical position that defends the existence of objects external to the knowing subject. However, the completed by our partner www.ebooks.com. Thank you for your feedback which will help us improve our service. ISBN-10: 0198747136. This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book. In metaphysics, realism about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.In philosophical terms, these objects are ontologically independent of someone's conceptual scheme, perceptions, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Kant proposed a philosophy where he said that reality exists independently of human minds but its knowledge is inherently unknowable to man because of sensory filters in our consciousness. Immanuel Kant's transcendental idealism consisted of taking a point of view outside and above oneself (transcendentally) and understanding that the mind directly knows only phenomena or ideas. This chapter examines Korsgaard’s broader constructivist interpretation of Kant’s ethics and its defining intellectualism and moral anti-realism, arguing that Korsgaard’s interpretation, despite the many virtues, is fundamentally flawed, both philosophically and as an interpretation of Kant’s ethics. That view can only be distorted by the beliefs we develop in adulthood. The first detailed analysis of all facets of Kant's ethics in relation to the moral realism and idealism debate, Defines moral realism, antirealism, constructivism, idealism and naturalism in relation to Kant's philosophy, Argues that Kant did not require the non-natural metaphysics often attributed to his ethical theory. In the first edition (A) of the Critique of Pure Reason,published in 1781, Kant argues for a surprising set of claims aboutspace, time, and objects: 1. In addition, there has been significant evolution in what is meant by the term "real". Manifest Reality: Kant's Idealism and his Realism 1st Edition by Lucy Allais (Author) 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 ratings. Value and the inexplicability of the practical Postscript: Kant's naturalist moral idealism Works cited Index. Your eBook purchase and download will be Citations of Kant's writings Introduction Part I. The failure to draw the distinction between appearances and things in themselves is the hallmark of all those pernicious systems of thought that stand under the title of “transcendental realism.” Kant’s transcendental idealism is the remedy for these. The transcendental status of empirical reason Part III. It will appeal to academic researchers and advanced students of Kant, German idealism and intellectual history. The place of ethics in Kant's philosophy Part II. Reviewed by Kris McDaniel, Syracuse University This book is terrific. In this medieval scholastic philosophy, however, "realism" meant something different -- indeed, in some ways almost opposite -- from what it means today. Abstract. This site uses cookies to improve your experience. Robert Stern, University of Sheffield, 'Frederick Rauscher's Naturalism and Realism in Kant's Ethics defends a bold interpretation of Kant, one that moves Kant still further in the direction of naturalism that other recent Anglophone interpreters of Kant have advocated, but one that also does justice to his idealist roots. The most important results to emerge will show that Kant’s views on scientific realism and his views on scientific methodology are absolutely inseparable. Reviewed by Richard Aquila, University of Tennessee. Realism, in philosophy, the view that accords to things that are known or perceived an existence or nature that is independent of whether anyone is thinking about or perceiving them. Naturalism and Realism in Kant’s Ethics - Volume 22 Issue 3 - Jochen Bojanowski. From many to one to none: non-natural free choice 7. Transcendental idealism, also called formalistic idealism, term applied to the epistemology of the 18th-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who held that the human self, or transcendental ego, constructs knowledge out of sense impressions and from universal concepts called categories that it imposes upon them. With Kant's claim that the mind of the knower makes an active contribution to experience of objects before us, we are in a better position to understand transcendental idealism. The realist character of Kant's account of empirical truth, and his commitment to the unity of nature, are defended against competing empiricist, pragmatist, and methodological readings. However, we cannot get rid of this synthetic knowledge. Please see the permission section of the www.ebooks.com catalogue Scientific realism is a positive epistemic attitude toward the content of our best theories and models, recommending belief in both observable and unobservable aspects of the world described by the sciences. The place of ethics in Kant's philosophy Part II. His position, properly understood, has a great deal of strength and plausibility. This chapter examines Korsgaard’s broader constructivist interpretation of Kant’s ethics and its defining intellectualism and moral anti-realism, arguing that Korsgaard’s interpretation, despite the many virtues, is fundamentally flawed, both philosophically and as an interpretation of Kant’s ethics. lemporal reality in kant accommodates both his empirical realism and his idealism the manifest reality kants idealism and his realism paperback by allais lucy isbn best book manifest reality kants idealism and his realism uploaded by michael crichton kants idealism can be understood as limiting empirical. Cambridge Core offers access to academic eBooks from our world-renowned publishing programme. Robert Stern, University of Sheffield, "Frederick Rauscher's Naturalism and Realism in Kant's Ethics defends a bold interpretation of Kant, one that moves Kant still further in the direction of naturalism that other recent Anglophone interpreters of Kant have advocated, but one that also does justice to his idealist roots. Natural science (physics) contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. Laying the Ground:1. It isn’t hard to argue that he belongs somewhere in the classical liberal tradition, but modern classical liberals are much more apt to cite the political theories of Locke, Montesquieu, Tocqueville, Adam … The path to resolving the paradoxes of Kant's theory opens up with two basic realizations: (1) Kant always believed that reason connected us directly to things-in-themselves, and (2) Kant's system is not a Cartesian theory of hidden, transcendent objects, but a version of empirical realism, that we are directly acquainted with real objects. Frederick Rauscher, Michigan State UniversityFrederick Rauscher is Professor of Philosophy at Michigan State University. 3. Examining every aspect of Kant's ethics, from the categorical imperative to freedom and value, this volume argues that Kant's focus on human moral agency explains morality as a part of nature. If you requested a response, we will make sure to get back to you shortly. Kenneth Westphal offers a detailed study of Kant's method of 'transcendental reflection' and its use in the Critique of Pure Reason.. However, the details This critical survey of recent work on Kant's doctrine of the fact of reason and his doctrine of the practical postulates (of freedom, God, and immortality) assesses the implications of these doctrines for the debate about realism and antirealism in Kant's moral philosophy. Both realists and anti-realists involved in the current debates can learn something from it. Immanuel Kant is a famously difficult philosopher, but also undeniably an important one. Kant argues that the conscious subject cognizes the objects of experience not as they are in themselves, but only the way they appear to us under the conditions of our sensibility. The book shows how Kant hesitates between a transcendental moral idealism with an empirical moral realism and a complete moral idealism. 2. In it one finds a plausible account of transcendental idealism, supported by arguments that are refreshingly clear yet powerful. lemporal reality in kant accommodates both his empirical realism and his idealism the manifest reality kants idealism and his realism paperback by allais lucy isbn best book manifest reality kants idealism and his realism uploaded by michael crichton kants … Rauscher frames the argument in the context of Kant's non-naturalistic philosophical method and the character of practical reason as action-oriented. Transcendental Realism is the theory, described (although not subscribed to) by Immanuel Kant, that implies individuals have a perfect understanding of the limitations of their own minds. Since phenomena are undoubtedly mental contents , a point repeatedly stressed by Kant, it is natural and easy to infer from this a Cartesian "transcendental realism," according to which "real" objects, which are not mental contents, are things that we do not experience. Polite silence might best describe the reception this assertion has garnered among even sympathetic interpreters. 30,No 213 (1976) Henry E. Allison stens als er sich auf Widerlegung des transzendentalen Realismus abstiitzt, mehr ein rnethodologischer als ein metaphysischer Idealismus ist. They are not beings that exist independently of our intuition(things in themselves), nor are they properties of, nor relationsamong, such beings. Realism cannot explain why we have reason to … In this comprehensive assessment of Kant's metaethics, Frederick Rauscher shows that Kant is a moral idealist rather than a moral realist and argues that Kant's ethics does not require metaphysical commitments that go beyond nature. 2. Practical Reason in Nature:3. The book shows how Kant hesitates between a transcendental moral idealism with an empirical moral realism and a complete moral idealism. This site uses cookies to improve your experience. The 13-digit and 10-digit formats both work. Create an account now. The transcendental status of empirical reason Part III. . Transcendental Idealism is Kant’s version of idealism, which has the main philosophy: synthetic a priori knowledge. Both views are highly controversial, and Rauscher's contribution to the debate is bound to attract further debate and discussion for some time to come.' How “realistic” is Kantian “empirical realism”? Looking for an examination copy? Lucy Allais. Robert Louden, University of Southern Maine, 'This is a book that breaks new ground and is worthy of attention.' Download it Kant S Transcendental Proof Of Realism books also available in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Please fill in the required fields in your feedback submission. lecturers@cambridge.org. Allison (2004) puts this “epistemic” interpretation in the context of a larger interpretation of transcendental idealism as a “meta-philosophical” position. Jeanine M. Grenberg, Journal of the History of Philosophy. Moral Realism (or Moral Objectivism) is the meta-ethical view (see the section on Ethics) that there exist such things as moral facts and moral values, and that these are objective and independent of our perception of them or our beliefs, feelings or other attitudes towards them. Realist positions have been defended in ontology, metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of science, ethics, and the theory of truth. To register your interest please contact collegesales@cambridge.org providing details of the course you are teaching. Kant's Transcendental Proof of Realism, by Kenneth Westphal. You will be asked to input your password on the next screen. lecturers@cambridge.org. In his discussion of realism, Kant distinguishes between two basic forms of realism, i.e., empirical and transcendental realism. Jeanine M. Grenberg, Journal of the History of Philosophy. Realism cannot explain the correctness of ethical statements. In one corner, there’s a machine shooting ping pong balls at you. Looking for an examination copy? The oldest use of the term comes from medieval interpretations and adaptations of Greek philosophy. Examining every aspect of Kant's ethics, from the categorical imperative to freedom and value, this volume argues that Kant's focus on human moral agency explains morality as a part of nature. Idealism was a major force in German philosophy from the 1780s to the 1840s. Create an account now. In case you didn’t get it, here’s another example: You are standing in a room. Lucy Allais, Manifest Reality: Kant's Idealism and His Realism, Oxford University Press, 2015, 329pp., $60.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780198747130. If you are having problems accessing these resources please email Examining every aspect of Kant's ethics, from the categorical imperative to freedom and value, this volume argues that Kant's focus on human moral agency explains morality as a part of nature. The basic idea of realism is that the kinds of thing which exist, and what they are like, are independent of us and the way in which we find out about them; antirealism denies this. Both views are highly controversial, and Rauscher's contribution to the debate is bound to attract further debate and discussion for some time to come." You are now leaving the Cambridge University Press website. The aim of this paper is to show that the “Critique of pure Reason” is the founding document of realism and that to the present-day Kant’s discussion of realism has shaped the theoretical landscape of the debates over realism. Kant brought into the epistemological discussion at least the following fundamental concepts, which are not present in Locke's epistemology: 1) Constructivist epistemology: We create or construct knowledge from the input of our senses by two capabilites of … 'God' without God: the status of the postulates 6. 1. The Rationalists believed that we could possess metaphysical knowledge about God, souls, substance, and so forth; they believed such knowledge was transcendentally real. Kant's arguments are designed to show the limitations of our knowledge. Kant first describes it in his Critique of Pure Reason, and distinguished his view from contemporary views of realism and idealism, but philosophers do not agree … I argue that there is textual evidence that Kant himself accepted value realism rather than constructivism. The book shows how Kant hesitates between a transcendental moral idealism with an empirical moral realism and a complete moral idealism. Close this message to accept … . Kant's doctrine is found throughout his Critique of Pure Reason (1781). The Rejection of Special Metaphysics and the Transcendental Dialectic what Kant terms his empirical realism, for as Abela notes, ‘Realism with a wink’ is the best description of how even Kant’s allies have viewed his supposed combination of 1 Throughout I often refer to Kant’s distinction between appearances and things in themselves as the ‘transcendental distinction’. Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. This distinction anticipates the nowadays common division between varieties of non-metaphysical and metaphysical realism. Realism can be applied to many philosophically interesting objects and phenomena: other minds, the past or … Practical Reason in Nature:3. ISBN-13: 978-0198747130. Examining every aspect of Kant's ethics, from the categorical imperative to freedom and value, this volume argues that Kant's focus on human moral agency explains morality as a part of nature. Reason operates entirely within nature, and apparently non-natural claims - God, free choice, and value - are shown to be heuristic and to reflect reason's ordering of nature. Thank you for your feedback which will help us improve our service. The project reveals Kant as an important author who is in constant meaningful dialogue with the realism/modernism debate of the twentieth century. [en] Realism takes many forms. Kant himself was a Transcendental Idealist in that he believed that our experience of things is about how they appear to us, and he did not believe one could ever understand the world as it actually exists. Your review must be a minimum of 12 words. Between t… Deontology, Consequentialism and Moral Realism A. Jean Thomas Abstract ... (Kant 1997: 232-3) Many of these criticisms target act rather than rule consequentialism because the former demands that we choose actions solely because they generate desirable consequences even though it may not be clear what the optimal benefit or consequence might be Please note that this file is password protected. If you are interested in the title for your course we can consider offering an examination copy. Kant not only invents the now common philosophical term ‘realism’. Characterizing Moral Anti-realism. This article surveys recent work on Kant's Critique of Practical Reason, with a particular focus on his doctrine of the fact of reason and his doctrine of the practical postulates, assessing the implications of such work for the debate about realism and antirealism in Kant's moral philosophy.Section 1 briefly surveys some salient considerations raised by Kant's first Critique and Groundwork. To register on our site and for the best user experience, please enable Javascript in your browser using these instructions. You are now leaving the Cambridge University Press website. Not already registered? Specifically, I want to discuss Kant’s influence on L. E. J. Brouwer, the 20th-century Dutch mathematician who built a contemporary philosophy of mathematics on constructivist themes which were quite explicitly Kantian. The philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel developed a more radical view called absolute idealism, which holds tha… It will demonstrate how Kant strives to balance modernism and realism to take advantage of the strengths … Kant’s ethics has often been caricatured as one of rigid, unthinking duty, and also of absolute altruism; White rebuts both of these claims and insists that Kantian ethics gives individuals the space to exercise mature, thoughtful, contextually appropriate judgments. Cambridge Core offers access to academic eBooks from our world-renowned publishing programme. Please see the permission section of the www.ebooks.com catalogue Your review must be a minimum of 12 words. In this comprehensive assessment of Kant's metaethics, Frederick Rauscher shows that Kant is a moral idealist rather than a moral realist and argues that Kant's ethics does not require metaphysical commitments that go beyond nature. It will appeal to academic researchers and advanced students of Kant, German idealism and intellectual history. Immanuel Kant claims that transcendental idealism yields a form of realism at the empirical level. Kant's Refutation of Realism Kant's Refutation of Realism ALLISON, Henry E. 1976-09-01 00:00:00 Vol. And Korsgarrd criticizes realism for three reasons: 1. Reason operates entirely within nature, and apparently non-natural claims - God, free choice, and value - are shown to be heuristic and to reflect reason's ordering of nature. Immanuel Kant built his philosophical arguments as a refutation to David Hume and his theory of skepticism, that men cannot perceive causality as we only rely on experience to guide us in life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0521833736, $80. Patrick Kain - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (5):449–465. Frederick Rauscher, Michigan State UniversityFrederick Rauscher is Professor of Philosophy at Michigan State University. Kant's Refutation of Realism By Henry E. ALLISON Summary This paper attempts to develop an interpretation of Kant's transcendental idealism which is based upon his critique of transcendental realism (understood as the view which systematically confuses appearances with things as … This title links Kant studies to contemporary philosophical debates, and will appeal to scholars and students of Kant, as well as epistemologists, metaphysicians, and philosophers of science interested in a powerful, experience … The philosopher Immanuel Kant developed the philosophical doctrine of transcendental idealism: Although material things exist in some form, human beings only experience the appearances of things, and remain separated from things in themselves. page for details of the print & copy limits on our eBooks. Kant’s International Relations: The Political Theology of Perpetual Peace By Seán Malloy Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2017. Please fill in the required fields in your feedback submission. Hill points out the problem of Kantian constructivism. (A26, A33) 2. He is the editor and co-translator of Kant: Lectures and Drafts on Political Philosophy (with Kenneth R. Westphal, Cambridge, 2015), co-translator of Notes and Fragments (with Paul Guyer and Curtis Bowman, Cambridge, 2005), and editor of Kant in Brazil (2012). Laying the Ground:1. Realist positions have been defended in ontology, metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of science, ethics, and the theory of truth. Your eBook purchase and download will be In this paper, I sketch a rival Kantian theory of value, which I call Kantian value realism. Kant's Empirical Realism. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Robert Louden, University of Southern Maine, 'This is a book that breaks new ground and is worthy of attention.' ISBN. Space and time are merely the forms of our sensible intuition ofobjects. In medieval p… To register on our site and for the best user experience, please enable Javascript in your browser using these instructions. Realism and Anti-Realism in Kant's Second Critique. The book shows how Kant hesitates between a transcendental moral idealism with an empirical moral realism and a complete moral idealism. 4 The view I am here attributing to Kant has obvious affinities with the position which Hilary Putnam terms ‘internal realism’, and which he regards as Kantian. Kant's Transcendental Idealism and Contemporary Anti‐Realism. Transcendental Idealism, Transcendental Realism, and the Possibility of Objective Reference Chair: Dr. Stephen Grimm The goal of my thesis is to understand why Kant thinks that transcendental idealism can secure empirical realism, the idea that there really exists an objective world that we can come to know through experience. If you are interested in the title for your course we can consider offering an examination copy. Citations of Kant's writings Introduction Part I. Rauscher frames the argument in the context of Kant's non-naturalistic philosophical method and the character of practical reason as action-oriented. The most important results to emerge will show that Kant’s views on scientific realism and his views on scientific methodology are absolutely inseparable. Realism, in philosophy, the view that accords to things that are known or perceived an existence or nature that is independent of whether anyone is thinking about or perceiving them. Kant's Argument for Transcendental Idealism in the Transcendental Aesthetic. What differentiates Kant’s idealism from your average idealist is the fact that we all have a set perception about the world. Hegel Bulletin is a leading English language journal for anyone interested in Hegel’s thought, its context, legacy…, Please register or sign in to request access. Whatever exists other than mental phenomena, or ideas that appear to the mind, is a thing-in-itself and cannot be directly and immediately known. Morality beyond Nature?:5. He is the editor and co-translator of Kant: Lectures and Drafts on Political Philosophy (with Kenneth R. Westphal, Cambridge, 2015), co-translator of Notes and Fragments (with Paul Guyer and Curtis Bowman, Cambridge, 2005), and editor of Kant in Brazil (2012). Reviewed by Kris McDaniel, Syracuse University [REVIEW] Bryan Hall - 2006 - Kantian Review 11:127-130. details Moral realism and naturalism 2. Not already registered? To register your interest please contact collegesales@cambridge.org providing details of the course you are teaching. Please note that this file is password protected. Therefore, moral judgments describe moral facts, which are as certain in their own way as mathematical facts. The priority of the practical and the fact of reason 4. Value and the inexplicability of the practical Postscript: Kant's naturalist moral idealism Works cited Index. To register your interest please contact collegesales@cambridge.org providing details of the course you are teaching. Hegel Bulletin is a leading English language journal for anyone interested in Hegel’s thought, its context, legacy…, Please register or sign in to request access. Read 14 answers by scientists with 10 recommendations from their colleagues to the question asked by Mathew Cohen on Mar 12, 2014 Published: May 25, 2016 Lucy Allais, Manifest Reality: Kant's Idealism and His Realism, Oxford University Press, 2015, 329pp., $60.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780198747130. From many to one to none: non-natural free choice 7. Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. To register on our site and for the best user experience, please enable Javascript in your browser using these. You will be asked to input your password on the next screen. Given Kant's continuing influence in nearly every area of philosophy, this is also an interpretation that will warrant careful study from a wide readership." The first detailed analysis of all facets of Kant's ethics in relation to the moral realism and idealism debate, Defines moral realism, antirealism, constructivism, idealism and naturalism in relation to Kant's philosophy, Argues that Kant did not require the non-natural metaphysics often attributed to his ethical theory. page for details of the print & copy limits on our eBooks. A Paralogism is a logical fallacy"), Kant further certifies his philosophy as separate from that of subjective idealism by defining his position as a transcendental idealism in accord with empirical realism (A366–80), a form of direct realism. Manifest Reality: Kant's Idealism and His Realism. Kant's notion that reason connects us directly to things-in-themselves … If you requested a response, we will make sure to get back to you shortly. Though my title speaks of Kant’s mathematical realism, I want in this essay to explore Kant’s relation to a famous mathematical anti-realist. If you are interested in the title for your course we can consider offering an examination copy. 'God' without God: the status of the postulates 6. Examining every aspect of Kant's ethics, from the categorical imperative to freedom and value, this volume argues that Kant's focus on human moral agency explains morality as a part of nature. Realism: Immanuel Kant On Space and Motion (not Space & Time) as Synthetic a priori Foundations for Physics. Kant S Transcendental Proof Of Realism Kant S Transcendental Proof Of Realism by Kenneth R. Westphal. Kant presents himself t o readers as a defender of Material Realism, that is, the philosophical position that defends the existence of objects external to the knowing subject. Abela, Paul, Kant's Empirical Realism, Oxford University Press, 2002, 322pp, $55.00 (hbk), ISBN 0199242747. Published: September 12, 2002. Morality beyond Nature?:5. Lucy Allais - 2003 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 11 (4):369 – 392. The priority of the practical and the fact of reason 4. The book shows how Kant hesitates between a transcendental moral idealism with an empirical moral realism and a complete moral idealism. Allison on Transcendental Realism and Transcendental Idealism. Despite the seeming straightforwardness of the realist position, in the history of philosophy there has been continuous debate about what is real. Mark D. White praises Immanuel Kant’s political philosophy and recommends it to modern classical liberals. In metaphysics, realism about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.In philosophical terms, these objects are ontologically independent of someone's conceptual scheme, perceptions, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. If you are having problems accessing these resources please email In this comprehensive assessment of Kant's metaethics, Frederick Rauscher shows that Kant is a moral idealist rather than a moral realist and argues that Kant's ethics does not require metaphysical commitments that go beyond nature. 'Rauscher offers a well-informed and well-argued discussion of two central issues in Kant's ethics, claiming him to be a metaphysical naturalist and a moral idealist. His position, properly understood, has a great deal of strength and plausibility. "Rauscher offers a well-informed and well-argued discussion of two central issues in Kant's ethics, claiming him to be a metaphysical naturalist and a moral idealist. Kant presented the core of his ethical theory in his Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, translated by James W. Elling­ton (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1785, 1993 edition).An excellent overview is provided by Roger J. Sullivan in An Introduction to Kant’s Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). This title is not currently available on inspection. Moral realism and naturalism 2. On this view, moral anti-realism is the denial of the thesis that moral properties—or facts, objects, relations, events, etc. One of the key assumptions of classical political realism is the immutability of human nature. There are historical and systematic reasons for allowing a much more positive relation between Kant’s ethical theory and moral realism. That Kant's theory is one of empirical realism is difficult to understand and easily forgotten. Allison’s idea is that, since Kant seems to regard transcendental idealism and “transcendental realism” as not only exclusive but exhaustive philosophical options, he must mean something very general by transcendental realism. To register on our site and for the best user experience, please enable Javascript in your browser using these. Traditionally, to hold a realist position with respect to X is to hold that X exists in a mind-independent manner (in the relevant sense of “mind-independence”). Why is ISBN important? Given Kant's continuing influence in nearly every area of philosophy, this is also an interpretation that will warrant careful study from a wide readership.'

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